Ahoy, The Age Of Tax Privateering!
Article: Germany Divided Over Buying Secret Swiss Bank Data
Date: Sun Jan 31, 2010
Article: HSBC Says Ex-Worker Stole Private Bank Client Data
Date: Wed Dec 9, 2009 3:22pm EST
The real issue confronting all private banks and global financial institutions is what I refer to as the dawn of the “Age of Tax Privateering”.
Over the weekend, a German newspaper broke the story that the German government had been offered a list of names of UBS clients for the equivalent of US$2.5m by a current or former UBS employee. I imagine that UBS is in the process of an internal investigation as we speak. Actually, given the amount of tax potentially due, recent history with the UBS and LGT scandals, and the US Whistleblower statute, US$2.5m is a bargain.
Lots of people know that an employee of LGT, a Lichtenstein financial institution, sold a list of names and accounts to the German secret service for about US$8m. That disgruntled former low-level employee is now in hiding, with a new identity, name and hopefully a new face, because there are a lot of angry people out there who wish him harm. That list of names has sparked tax and criminal investigations around the world, including Canada (see “Canadian Probe Part of International Sweep” Globe & Mail, Monday December 14, 2009, p. 1). The amount of tax, interest and penalties that will be paid by the clients of LGT is easily 10 times what the Germans paid for it. From the new reports in Canada, I would not be unreasonable to assume that there would be in excess of $8m collected just in Canada.
What people generally do not know is that one of the key players in the UBS scandal, Brad Birkenfeld, the American UBS banker who came forward with all the key information, has made a claim under the US Whistleblower Rewards Program (except the people who saw the 60 Minutes episode on January 4th, 2010) for potentially hundreds of millions of dollars. One report says his claim is for US$34m. Granted, Mr. Birkenfeld is going to spend 40 months in jail (because he forgot to mention some of his clients when he came forward …), but if he survives jail, he should get a significant payday, of about US$1m per month. I think a lot of people would take that deal …
Under the US Whisleblower Reward Program, by statute, people who provide “substantial assistance” to the US IRS in the recovery of tax payable, can receive a reward of up to 30% of the tax payable. There are a couple of caveats, of course, like the fact that the whistleblower’s lawyers will take 40% to 50% of the amount paid, but still, it is a there is a substantial payday involved. What the lawyers do to merit their hefty portion of the reward (frankly, a lot!) will be the topic of another blog, but for now the main point is that there is big money to be made in “outing” tax cheats.
Which is why the news reports of someone wanting a measly $2.5m for UBS data is such a bargain. And the harbinger of things to come. Yes, there will be a chill on Whistleblowers now that Brad Birkenfeld has gone to jail. But frankly, what happened to him is a cautionary tale – coming clean means coming clean about everything, not just some things. So I do not think the parade of individuals coming forward with information to the US tax authorities is going to come to a halt. There is just too much money involved. Also, many of the people who come forward, unlike Brad, have no direct involvement in the tax fraud – former spouses, former business partners, disgruntled employees, and even gruntled employees, who know where the money is hidden. All kinds of people come forward, not just people who have also committed crimes, because of the money being offered. Also, the US tax whistleblower system does not require that the informant ever become known to anyone but the lead auditor for the government. Even in criminal tax cases, the identity of the informant remains completely anonymous, and their name will never be revealed to the taxpayer being prosecuted.
So from my perspective, it does not matter if UBS’ clients win their case and Switzerland does not disclose the information to the US. It does not matter if other banks in Switzerland, or other countries, decide they want the US tax cheats that some of the Swiss banks are dumping. It does not matter what the banks and governments do to maintain control of the information, because sooner rather than later, the US will get information on every significant non-US account held by a US person. The US will get everything they want because the US offers big rewards, and those rewards do not require going to jail, or losing your job or anyone ever knowing it was you that sold the taxpayer(s) out.
But this is not just a US issue. Sooner or later, other countries will begin to see that if you want something done right, you have to inject the spirit of free enterprise into the process. The twin drivers of all markets, including the market for information, are fear and greed. Other countries have tried to make people provide information about their income and tax due using fear of punishment. The US is, so far, the only government consistently using both drivers as a matter of policy– the US also uses greed (of other people other than the taxpayer) to make rich taxpayers afraid of not fully reporting their income. Germany has paid for such information once, and I do not know why they would not do so again, and again, and again … Once other countries catch on, and make the reward process more transparent and less ‘cloak & daggar’, the Age of Tax Privateering will truly be upon us.
In the 16th to 19th centuries, nations could not afford to pay for standing navies of any size, so they would often provide “Letters of Marque” to private ships in times of war. The Letters of Marque would authorize the ship’s captain to attack the shipping (and ports if possible) of the enemy. Everyone made out like bandits (or rather pirates) as the government could often sell the Letters, and would often receive a portion of the proceeds, or at least would benefit from the increased commerce to their ports when the privateers brought home their booty to sell. The US’ blanket offer of a reward for information leading to the collection of tax owed is about as close to privateering as you will get in the modern world.
OK, I admit you could refer to it as “Tax Bounty Hunting”, because that is effectively what is being offered, a reward or bounty, for turning in the bad guys. But personally, I do not think “Tax Bounty Hunter” sounds as cool. Dog the Bounty Hunter is cool, but that is the wrong image for me. I think “Tax Privateer” just seems to have more style, in a ‘Captain Jack Sparrow’ kind of way. It also has a certain Monty-Pythonesque quality of sophisticated farce to it. In the prologue to their 1983 film, Meaning of Life, “The Crimson Permanent Assurance”, a British Assurance company mutinies, and the building, with the entire ‘crew’ of underwriters aboard, sails off on the wide ‘accountan-sea’ to attack their new (American) owner, the Very Big Corporation. This daydream image of tax lawyers as swashbuckling tax privateers, assisting the hard-done-by of the world to get even (and rich!) by informing on one’s employer, clients, et. al., sticks in my mind as both lyrical and ridiculous at the same time. Tax Privateer also makes the whole process seem more like good fun rather than the abetting of cold-hearted betrayal that it is!
I often work for the banks and other financial institutions that cater to the world’s wealthy, but my practice is focused on helping everyone stay onside and compliant with Canada’s tax laws. Or, if there is an issue, I assist individuals and institutions get everyone back onside and compliant from where they (accidentally, of course) happen to be, by making a proper voluntary disclosure, and formulating a tax-compliant plan for going forward once the client has paid what they owe to the Crown. So like any lawyer, I have to deal with conflict of interest issues whenever I consider taking on any case. However, if you know anything that a US someone would rather that the US IRS did not, please let me know. If you know a lot about a lot of people that they would rather any particular government not know, also please get in contact. I know the people who can make it happen, and I would be more than happy to raise the Jolly Roger and take up Tax Privateering …
… yo-ho, yo-ho, a tax privateer’s life for me …
Originally posted on www.garbutt-taxlaw.com, used with permission
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