2011 OFFSHORE VOLUNTARY DISCLOSURE INITIATIVE MAY HELP U.S. CITIZENS RESIDING IN CANADA TO REDUCE PENALTIES AND AVOID CRIMINAL PROSECUTION FOR PAST NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE U.S. TAX REQUIREMENTS AND BECOME FULLY COMPLIANT WITH THE FILING AND REPORTING OBLIGATIONS, INCLUDING FBAR FOR CANADIAN BANK ACCOUNTS AND RRSPs.
2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative expires on August 31, 2011. Generally, the OVDI Program was designed to help U.S. citizens and other “U.S. persons” to become fully compliant with filing and reporting obligations under the Internal Revenue Code (“IRC”).
As a matter of U.S. tax law, all U.S. citizens must file U.S. income tax returns and comply with various reporting obligations arising under the Internal Revenue Code, including so called Report of Foreign Bank and Financial Accounts (“FBAR”). The failure to comply entails onerous fines and potential criminal persecution. A penalty alone may, as I understand it, reach 25 percent of the highest amount held in unreported account in a fiscal year.
Consider a situation where a U.S. citizen has been living and working in Canada for years. Even if the individual has duly filed his U.S. tax returns in the past, a single bank account or even an RRSP account, held either directly or perhaps jointly with a spouse, may potentially expose the individual to harsh penalties!
A U.S. citizen residing in Canada may not just ignore and hide behind the border. The Canada-U.S. Tax Treaty provides the Internal Revenue Service with broad legal powers to collect theU.S. income taxes and penalties due from U.S. citizens residing in Canada. With the assistance of the Canada Revenue Agency and Canadian courts, the IRS may collect all such amounts from the U.S. taxpayers banking accounts or other assets located in Canada, such as real estate. It may also garnish wages or other income.
If you are a U.S. citizen residing in Canada, you still have time to take advantage of the 2011 OVDI Program and comply with the outstanding filing and reporting requirements, including FBAR for the past years, with a payment of only a small penalty. In certain circumstances, you may also ask the IRS to extend the August 31, 2011 deadline.
We note that the acceptance by the disclosure under the 2011 OVDI Program contemplates that a taxpayer be fully compliant with the reporting obligations in his or her residence country. As it applies to a U.S. citizen residing in Canada, it meant that he or she should have filed all Canadian tax returns and not be subject to any outstanding reporting or monetary tax obligations in Canada.
A full discussion of the 2011 OVDI is beyond the scope of this news item. As public service, we enclosed the key provisions of the 2011 OVDI Program as described by the IRS in a Q&A review posted on its website. If you want to read the whole review, click here. For more information on FBAR, click here.
In the meantime, if you need assistance with the 2011 OVDI Program, please contact Vitaly Timokhov or any other member of Tax Chambers at 416 847-7300.
The following information has been copied from the IRS website.
1. Why did the IRS announce a new special offshore voluntary disclosure initiative at this time?
The IRS’s prior Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Program (2009 OVDP), which closed on October 15, 2009, demonstrated the value of a uniform penalty structure for taxpayers who came forward voluntarily and reported their previously undisclosed foreign accounts and assets. Not only did the initiative offer consistency and predictability to taxpayers in determining the amount of tax and penalties they faced, it also enabled the IRS to centralize the civil processing of offshore voluntary disclosures. Therefore, it was determined that a similar initiative should be available to the large number of taxpayers with offshore accounts and assets who applied to IRS Criminal Investigation’s traditional voluntary disclosure practice since the October 15 deadline. This new initiative, the 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative (2011 OVDI) will be available to those taxpayers and other similarly situated taxpayers who come forward and complete all requirements on or before August 31, 2011.
2. What is the objective of this initiative?
The objective remains the same as the 2009 OVDP – to bring taxpayers that have used undisclosed foreign accounts and undisclosed foreign entities to avoid or evade tax into compliance with United States tax laws.
3. How does this initiative differ from the IRS’s longstanding voluntary disclosure practice or the 2009 OVDP?
The Voluntary Disclosure Practice is a longstanding practice of IRS Criminal Investigation whereby CI takes timely, accurate, and complete voluntary disclosures into account in deciding whether to recommend to the Department of Justice that a taxpayer be criminally prosecuted. It enables noncompliant taxpayers to resolve their tax liabilities and minimize their chance of criminal prosecution. When a taxpayer truthfully, timely, and completely complies with all provisions of the voluntary disclosure practice, the IRS will not recommend criminal prosecution to the Department of Justice.
This current offshore initiative is a counter-part to Criminal Investigation’s Voluntary Disclosure Practice. Like its predecessor, the 2009 OVDP, which ran from March 23, 2009 through October 15, 2009, it addresses the civil side of a taxpayer’s voluntary disclosure by defining the number of tax years covered and setting the civil penalties that will apply.
4. Why should I make a voluntary disclosure?
Taxpayers with undisclosed foreign accounts or entities should make a voluntary disclosure because it enables them to become compliant, avoid substantial civil penalties and generally eliminate the risk of criminal prosecution. Making a voluntary disclosure also provides the opportunity to calculate, with a reasonable degree of certainty, the total cost of resolving all offshore tax issues. Taxpayers who do not submit a voluntary disclosure run the risk of detection by the IRS and the imposition of substantial penalties, including the fraud penalty and foreign information return penalties, and an increased risk of criminal prosecution. The IRS remains actively engaged in ferreting out the identities of those with undisclosed foreign accounts. Moreover, increasingly this information is available to the IRS under tax treaties, through submissions by whistleblowers, and will become more available as the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) and Foreign Financial Asset Reporting (new IRC § 6038D`) become effective.
5. What are some of the civil penalties that might apply if I don’t come in under voluntary disclosure and the IRS examines me? How do they work?
Depending on a taxpayer’s particular facts and circumstances, the following penalties could apply:
6. What are some of the criminal charges I might face if I don’t come in under voluntary disclosure and the IRS examines me?
Possible criminal charges related to tax returns include tax evasion (26 U.S.C. § 7201), filing a false return (26 U.S.C. § 7206(1)) and failure to file an income tax return (26 U.S.C. § 7203). Willfully failing to file an FBAR and willfully filing a false FBAR are both violations that are subject to criminal penalties under 31 U.S.C. § 5322.
A person convicted of tax evasion is subject to a prison term of up to five years and a fine of up to $250,000. Filing a false return subjects a person to a prison term of up to three years and a fine of up to $250,000. A person who fails to file a tax return is subject to a prison term of up to one year and a fine of up to $100,000. Failing to file an FBAR subjects a person to a prison term of up to ten years and criminal penalties of up to $500,000.
KEY FEATURES OF INITIATIVE
7. What are the terms of the 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative?
Under the terms of the 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative, taxpayers must:
8. How does the penalty framework work? Can you give us an example?
The values of accounts and other assets are aggregated for each year and the penalty is calculated at 25 percent of the highest year‘s aggregate value during the period covered by the voluntary disclosure. If the taxpayer has multiple accounts or assets where the highest value of some accounts or assets is in different years, the values of accounts and other assets are aggregated for each year and a single penalty is calculated at 25 percent of the highest year‘s aggregate value. For example, assume the taxpayer has the following amounts in a foreign account over the period covered by his voluntary disclosure. It is assumed for purposes of the example that the $1,000,000 was in the account before 2003 and was not unreported income in 2003.
|Year||Amount on Deposit||Interest Income||Account Balance|
(NOTE: This example does not provide for compounded interest, and assumes the taxpayer is in the 35-percent tax bracket, does not have an investment in a Passive Foreign Investment Company (PFIC), files a return but does not include the foreign account or the interest income on the return, and the maximum applicable penalties are imposed.)
If the taxpayers in the above example come forward and their voluntary disclosure is accepted by the IRS, they face this potential scenario:
They would pay $518,000 plus interest. This includes:
If the taxpayers didn’t come forward, when the IRS discovered their offshore activities, they would face up to $4,543,000 in tax, accuracy-related penalty, and FBAR penalty. The taxpayers would also be liable for interest and possibly additional penalties, and an examination could lead to criminal prosecution.
The civil liabilities outside the 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative potentially include:
Note that if the foreign activity started before 2003, the Service may examine tax years prior to 2003 if the taxpayer is not part of the 2011 OVDI.
9. What years are included in the 2011 OVDI disclosure period?
Calendar year taxpayers must include tax years 2003 through 2010 in which they have undisclosed foreign accounts and/or undisclosed foreign entities. Fiscal year taxpayers must include fiscal years ending in calendar years 2003 through 2010.
10. What are my options if my account involves passive foreign investment company (PFIC) issues?
To date, a significant number of cases submitted under the 2009 OVDP involve PFIC investments. A lack of historical information on the cost basis and holding period of many PFIC investments makes it difficult for taxpayers to prepare statutory PFIC computations and for the Service to verify them. As a result, resolution of voluntary disclosure cases could be unduly delayed. Therefore, for purposes of this initiative, the Service is offering taxpayers an alternative to the statutory PFIC computation that will resolve PFIC issues on a basis that is consistent with the Mark to Market (MTM) methodology authorized in Internal Revenue Code § 1296 but will not require complete reconstruction of historical data.
The terms of this alternative resolution are:
Before electing the alternative PFIC resolution, taxpayers with PFIC investments should consult their tax advisors to ensure that the issue is material in their cases and that the alternative is in fact preferable to the statutory computation in their situation. If the taxpayer does not elect to use the alternative PFIC computation, the PFIC provisions of §§ 1291-1298 apply.
11. What happens if I fail to make a voluntary disclosure by the August 31, 2011 deadline?
Although the terms of this initiative are available only to taxpayers who complete the voluntary disclosure process on or before August 31, 2011, Criminal Investigation’s Voluntary Disclosure Practice remains available to taxpayers who wish to disclose voluntarily their tax violations after that date. However, these taxpayers will not be eligible for the special civil terms of this initiative and will be liable for all applicable civil penalties, including the willful FBAR penalty. In addition, the civil resolution of their cases may extend to tax years prior to 2003.
ELIGIBILITY FOR THIS INITIATIVE
12. Who is eligible to make a voluntary disclosure under this initiative?
Taxpayers who have undisclosed offshore accounts or assets are eligible to apply for IRS Criminal Investigation’s Voluntary Disclosure Practice and the 2011 OVDI penalty regime for tax years 2003 through 2010.
13. Are entities, such as corporations, partnerships and trusts eligible to make voluntary disclosures?
Yes, entities are eligible to participate in the 2011 OVDI.
14. I’m currently under examination. Can I come in under voluntary disclosure?
No. If the IRS has initiated a civil examination, regardless of whether it relates to undisclosed foreign accounts or undisclosed foreign entities, the taxpayer will not be eligible to come in under the 2011 OVDI. Taxpayers under criminal investigation by CI are also ineligible. The taxpayer or the taxpayer’s representative should discuss the offshore accounts with the agent.
15. What if the taxpayer has already filed amended returns reporting the additional unreported income, without making a voluntary disclosure (i.e. quiet disclosure)?
The IRS is aware that some taxpayers have attempted so-called “quiet” disclosures by filing amended returns and paying any related tax and interest for previously unreported offshore income without otherwise notifying the IRS. Taxpayers who have already made “quiet” disclosures are eligible to take advantage of the penalty framework applicable to this initiative by submitting an application, along with copies of their previously filed returns (original and amended) to the IRS’s Voluntary Disclosure Coordinator (see FAQ 24) by August 31, 2011.
Taxpayers are strongly encouraged to come forward under the 2011 OVDI to make timely, accurate, and complete disclosures. Those taxpayers making “quiet” disclosures should be aware of the risk of being examined and potentially criminally prosecuted for all applicable years.
16. Some taxpayers have made quiet disclosures by filing amended returns. Will the IRS audit these taxpayers? If so, will they be eligible for the 25 percent offshore penalty? Is the IRS really going to prosecute someone who filed an amended return and correctly reported all their income?
The IRS is reviewing amended returns and could select any amended return for examination. The IRS has identified, and will continue to identify, amended tax returns reporting increases in income. The IRS will closely review these returns to determine whether enforcement action is appropriate. If a return is selected for examination, the 25 percent offshore penalty would not be available. When criminal behavior is evident and the disclosure does not meet the requirements of a voluntary disclosure under IRM 220.127.116.11, the IRS may recommend criminal prosecution to the Department of Justice.
17. I have properly reported all my taxable income but I only recently learned that I should have been filing FBARs in prior years to report my personal foreign bank account or to report the fact that I have signature authority over bank accounts owned by my employer. May I come forward under this new initiative to correct this?
The purpose for the voluntary disclosure practice is to provide a way for taxpayers who did not report taxable income in the past to come forward voluntarily and resolve their tax matters. Thus, if you reported and paid tax on all taxable income but did not file FBARs, do not use the voluntary disclosure process.
For taxpayers who reported and paid tax on all their taxable income for prior years but did not file FBARs, you should file the delinquent FBAR reports according to the instructions (send to Department of Treasury, Post Office Box 32621, Detroit, MI 48232-0621) and attach a statement explaining why the reports are filed late. The IRS will not impose a penalty for the failure to file the delinquent FBARs if there are no underreported tax liabilities and the FBARs are filed by August 31, 2011. However, FBARs for 2010 are due on June 30, 2011 and must be filed by that date.
Question 17 states that a taxpayer who only failed to file an FBAR should not use this process. What about a taxpayer who only has delinquent Form 5471s or Form 3520s but no tax due? Does that taxpayer fall outside this voluntary disclosure process?
A taxpayer who has failed to file tax information returns, such as Form 5471 for controlled foreign corporations (CFCs) or Form 3520 for foreign trusts but who has reported and paid tax on all their taxable income with respect to all transactions related to the CFCs or foreign trusts, should file delinquent information returns with the appropriate service center according to the instructions for the form and attach a statement explaining why the information returns are filed late. (The Form 5471 should be submitted with an amended return showing no change to income or tax liability.)
The IRS will not impose a penalty for the failure to file the information returns if there are no underreported tax liabilities and the information returns are filed by August 31, 2011.
18. Is a taxpayer who previously sought relief under the IRS’s traditional Voluntary Disclosure Practice or who made a quiet disclosure before the 2011 OVDI was announced eligible for the terms of the 2011 OVDI?
A taxpayer who made a voluntary disclosure (other than a voluntary disclosure under the 2009 OVDP) or made a quiet disclosure is eligible to apply for the 2011 OVDI. Participants in the 2009 OVDP are not eligible.
19. If I don’t have the ability to full pay can I still participate in this initiative?
Yes. The terms of this initiative require the taxpayer to pay the tax, interest, and accuracy-related penalty, and, if applicable the failure to file and failure to pay penalties with their submission. However, it is possible for a taxpayer who is unable to make full payment of these amounts to request the IRS to consider other payment arrangements (see FAQ 25).
The burden will be on the taxpayer to establish inability to pay, to the satisfaction of the IRS, based on full disclosure of all assets and income sources, domestic and offshore, under the taxpayer’s control. Assuming that the IRS determines that the inability to fully pay is genuine, the taxpayer must work out other financial arrangements, acceptable to the IRS, to resolve all outstanding liabilities, in order to be entitled to the penalty relief under this initiative.
If the IRS has served a John Doe summons seeking information that may identify a taxpayer as holding an undisclosed foreign account or undisclosed foreign entity, does that make the taxpayer ineligible to make a voluntary disclosure under this initiative?
No. The mere fact that the Service served a John Doe summons does not make every member of the John Doe class ineligible to participate. However, once the Service obtains information under a John Doe summons that provides evidence of a specific taxpayer’s noncompliance with the tax laws, that particular taxpayer may become ineligible. For this reason, a taxpayer concerned that a party served with a John Doe summons will provide information about him to the Service should apply to make a voluntary disclosure as soon as possible.
2011 OVDI PROCESS
Can my representative talk to the IRS without revealing my identity?
Yes, but hypothetical situations present a potential for misunderstanding that exists when there is no assurance that the hypothetical contains all relevant facts. In addition, posing a situation as a hypothetical does not satisfy the requirements for making a voluntary disclosure. If the IRS receives information relating specifically to the taxpayer’s undisclosed foreign accounts or undisclosed foreign entities while the hypothetical question is pending, the taxpayer may become ineligible to make a voluntary disclosure.
If practitioners have questions about the terms of the voluntary disclosure program, they should contact the IRS OVDI Hotline at (267) 941-0020, visit www.irs.gov, or contact their nearest CI office with questions.
How do I request pre-clearance before I submit my offshore voluntary disclosure?
For the 2011 OVDI pre-clearance may be requested as follows:
Pre-clearance does not guarantee a taxpayer acceptance into the 2011 OVDI. Taxpayers must truthfully, timely, and completely comply with all provisions of the offshore voluntary disclosure program.
Taxpayers or representatives with questions regarding pre-clearance can call (215) 861-3759 or contact their nearest CI office. For all other offshore voluntary disclosure questions call the IRS OVDI Hotline at (267) 941-0020.
How do I make an offshore voluntary disclosure and where should I submit my offshore voluntary disclosure to determine whether I am preliminarily accepted under this initiative?
For the 2011 OVDI, an offshore voluntary disclosure is submitted as follows:
All other voluntary disclosures that are not covered under this initiative should follow the instructions.
After I am notified by CI that my disclosure is timely, what other information will I have to provide?
The letter from CI will instruct the taxpayer or their representative to submit the full voluntary disclosure package of information to the Austin Campus:
Internal Revenue Service
3651 S. I H 35 Stop 4301 AUSC
Austin, TX 78741
ATTN: 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative
on or before August 31, 2011. This package must include:
Please see the Submission Requirements on the IRS’s website, 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative Documents and Forms, for a complete description of the forms and other information that must be submitted.
You may also be contacted by an examiner with a request for specific additional information if needed to process your voluntary disclosure. The examiner will certify that your voluntary disclosure is correct, accurate, and complete by reviewing your records along with your amended or delinquent income tax returns. The examiner will also verify the tax, interest, and civil penalties you owe.
A full and complete submission is required for acceptance into the program.
What if I cannot make a complete submission by August 31, 2011?
A taxpayer may request an extension of the deadline to complete his or her submission if the taxpayer can demonstrate a good faith attempt to fully comply with FAQ 25 on or before August 31, 2011. The good faith attempt to fully comply must include the properly completed and signed agreements to extend the period of time to assess tax (including tax penalties) and to assess FBAR penalties.
Requests for up to a 90 day extension must include a statement of those items that are missing, the reasons why they are not included, and the steps taken to secure them. Requests for extensions must be made in writing and sent to the Austin Campus on or before August 31, 2011:
Internal Revenue Service
3651 S. I H 35 Stop 4301 AUSC
Austin, TX 78741
ATTN: 2011 Offshore Voluntary Disclosure Initiative
Who will process my voluntary disclosure after I have submitted the information described in FAQ 25?
After you send in your full and complete submission as described in FAQ 25, your case will be assigned to a civil examiner to complete the certification of your tax returns for accuracy, completeness and correctness.
Will my voluntary disclosure be subject to an examination?
Normally, no examination will be conducted with respect to a voluntary disclosure made under this initiative, although the Service reserves the right to conduct an examination. The normal process is to assign the voluntary disclosure to an examiner to certify the accuracy and completeness of the voluntary disclosure. The certification process is less formal than an examination and does not carry with it all the rights and legal consequences of an examination. For example, the examiner will not send the usual taxpayer notices, the certification process will not constitute a “second examination” if one or more years in the voluntary disclosure has previously been examined, and the taxpayer will not have appeal rights with respect to the Service’s determination. However, the examiner has the right to ask any relevant questions, request any relevant documents, and even make third party contacts, if necessary to certify the accuracy of the amended returns, without converting the certification to an examination.
How long should the process take before it is completed?
Because every case is different, there is no way to predict how long the process will take for you. However, the IRS has taken certain steps to improve our efficiency in processing cases. Moreover, there are certain steps you can take to expedite matters. If you have not already done so, you should have delinquent or amended tax returns prepared now because they must be submitted with your package by August 31, 2011. You should also start gathering all of your foreign account statements and other documentation for all of the years covered by your voluntary disclosure. You may view a description of the submission requirements necessary to process your voluntary disclosure at www.irs.gov. Once the examiner has all the information needed to certify your voluntary disclosure, most cases should be completed expeditiously. The 2011 OVDI will operate on a first-come, first-served basis. As a result, complete submissions coming in before the final deadline are likely to close much faster.
29. My offshore assets were held in the name of a foreign entity that I controlled. However, the sole purpose of the entity was to conceal my ownership of the assets, and I intend to dissolve the entity now that I am making a voluntary disclosure. Do I still have to file the delinquent information returns for the entity?
A taxpayer who holds assets through a foreign entity he or she controls, such as a corporation or a trust, is required to file information returns for that entity (e.g., Form 5471 for a foreign corporation and Forms 3520 and 3520-A for a foreign trust), regardless of whether the taxpayer honored the form of the entity in his or her dealings with the assets. However, in cases where the taxpayer certifies under penalty of perjury that the entity had no purpose other than to conceal the taxpayer’s ownership of assets, and where the taxpayer dissolves the entity, the Service may agree to waive the requirement that delinquent information returns be filed if it concludes it is in the Service’s interest to do so. Taxpayers wishing to request the Service to disregard a foreign entity should submit a Statement on Dissolved Entities.
What should I do if I am having difficulty obtaining my records from overseas?
If you are having difficulty, speak with your agent or if your case is not yet assigned, contact the IRS OVDI Hotline at (267) 941-0020. Our experience with offshore cases in recent years has shown that taxpayers are ultimately successful in retrieving copies of statements and other records from foreign banks.
CALCULATING THE OFFSHORE PENALTY
When determining the highest amount in each undisclosed foreign account for each year or the highest asset balance of all undisclosed foreign entities for each year, what exchange rate should be used?
Convert foreign currency by using the foreign currency exchange rate at the end of the year. In valuing currency of a country that uses multiple exchange rates, use the rate that would apply if the currency in the account were converted into United States dollars at the close of the calendar year. Each account is to be valued separately.
If a taxpayer’s violation includes unreported individual foreign accounts and business accounts (for an active business), does the 25 percent offshore penalty include the business accounts?
Yes. Assuming that there is unreported income with respect to all the accounts, they all will be included in the penalty base. No distinction is drawn based on whether the account is a business account or a savings or investment account.
Is there a de minimis unreported income exception to the 25 percent penalty?
No. No amount of unreported income is considered de minimis for purposes of determining whether there has been tax non-compliance with respect to an account or asset and whether the account or asset should be included in the base for the 25 percent penalty.
If the look back period is 2003-2010, what does the taxpayer do if the taxpayer held foreign real estate, sold it in 2002, and did not report the gain on his 2002 return? Does the taxpayer compute the 25 percent on the highest aggregate balance in 2003-2010? What, if anything, does IRS expect the taxpayer to do with respect to 2002?
Gain realized on a foreign transaction occurring before 2003 does not need to be included as part of the voluntary disclosure. If the proceeds of the transaction were repatriated and were not offshore after December 31, 2002, they will not be included in the base for the 25 percent offshore penalty. On the other hand, if the proceeds remained offshore after December 31, 2002, they will be included in the base for the penalty.
What kinds of assets does the 25 percent offshore penalty apply to?
The offshore penalty is intended to apply to all of the taxpayer’s offshore holdings that are related in any way to tax non-compliance, regardless of the form of the taxpayer’s ownership or the character of the asset. The penalty applies to all assets directly owned by the taxpayer, including financial accounts holding cash, securities or other custodial assets; tangible assets such as real estate or art; and intangible assets such as patents or stock or other interests in a U.S. or foreign business. If such assets are indirectly held or controlled by the taxpayer through an entity, the penalty may be applied to the taxpayer’s interest in the entity or, if the Service determines that the entity is an alter ego or nominee of the taxpayer, to the taxpayer’s interest in the underlying assets. Tax noncompliance includes failure to report income from the assets, as well as failure to pay U.S. tax that was due with respect to the funds used to acquire the asset. See FAQ 52, category 3, for a limited exception to this rule.
A taxpayer owns valuable land and artwork located in a foreign jurisdiction. This property produces no income and there were no reporting requirements regarding this property. Must the taxpayer report the land and artwork and pay a 25 percent penalty? What if the property produced income that the taxpayer did not report?
The answer to the first question depends on whether the non-income producing assets were acquired with funds improperly non-taxed. The offshore penalty is intended to apply to offshore assets that are related to tax non-compliance. Thus, if offshore assets were acquired with funds that were subject to U.S. tax but on which no such tax was paid, the offshore penalty would apply regardless of whether the assets are producing current income. Assuming that the assets were acquired with after tax funds or from funds that were not subject to U.S. taxation, if the assets have not yet produced any income, there has been no U.S. taxable event and no reporting obligation to disclose. The taxpayer will be required to report any current income from the property or gain from its sale or other disposition at such time in the future as the income is realized. Because there has not been tax noncompliance, the 25 percent offshore penalty would not apply to those assets.
In answer to the second question, if the assets produced income subject to U.S. tax during 2003-2010 which was not reported, the assets will be included in the penalty computation regardless of the source of the funds used to acquire the assets. If the foreign assets were held in the name of an entity such as a trust or corporation, there would also have been an information return filing obligation that may need to be disclosed. See FAQ 5.
37. If a taxpayer transferred funds from one unreported foreign account to another between 2003 and 2010, will he have to pay a 25 percent offshore penalty on both accounts?
No. If the taxpayer can establish that funds were transferred from one account to another, any duplication will be removed before calculating the 25 percent penalty. However, the burden will be on the taxpayer to establish the extent of the duplication.
38. If, in addition to other noncompliance, a taxpayer has failed to file an FBAR to report an account over which the taxpayer has signature authority but no beneficial interest (e.g., an account owned by his employer), will that foreign account be included in the base for calculating the taxpayer’s 25 percent offshore penalty?
No. The account the taxpayer has mere signature authority over will be treated as unrelated to the tax noncompliance the taxpayer is voluntarily disclosing. The taxpayer may cure the FBAR delinquency for the account the taxpayer does not own by filing the FBAR with an explanatory statement by August 31, 2011. The answer might be different if: (1) the account over which the taxpayer has signature authority is held in the name of a related person, such as a family member or a corporation controlled by the taxpayer; (2) the account is held in the name of a foreign corporation or trust for which the taxpayer had a Title 26 reporting obligation; or (3) the account was related in some other way to the taxpayer’s tax noncompliance. In these cases, if the taxpayer is determined to have a direct or indirect beneficial interest in the account(s), the taxpayer will be liable for the 25 percent offshore penalty if there is unreported income on the account. On the other hand, if there is no unreported income with respect to the account, no penalty will be imposed.
39. If parents have a jointly owned foreign account on which they have made their children signatories, the children have an FBAR filing requirement but no income. Should the children just file delinquent FBARs and have the parents submit a voluntary disclosure? Will both parents be penalized 25 percent each? Will each parent have a 25 percent penalty on 50 percent of the balance?
For those signatories with no ownership interest in the account, such as the children in these facts, they should file delinquent FBARs as previously described in FAQ 17. As for the parents, only one 25 percent offshore penalty will be applied with respect to voluntary disclosures relating to the same account. In the example, the parents will be jointly required to pay a single 25 percent penalty on the account. This can be through one parent paying the total penalty or through each paying a portion, at the taxpayers’ option. However, any joint account owner who does not make a voluntary disclosure may be examined and subject to all appropriate penalties.
40. If multiple taxpayers are co-owners of an offshore account, who will be liable for the offshore penalty?
In the case of co-owners, each taxpayer who makes a voluntary disclosure will be liable for the penalty on his percentage of the highest aggregate balance in the account. His voluntary disclosure is effective as to his tax liability only. It does not cover the other co-owners. The IRS may examine any co-owner who does not make a voluntary disclosure. Co-owners examined by the IRS will be subject to all appropriate penalties.
41. If there are multiple individuals with signature authority over a trust account, does everyone involved need to file delinquent FBARs? If so, could everyone be subject to a 25 percent offshore penalty?
Only one 25 percent offshore penalty will be applied with respect to voluntary disclosures relating to the same account. The penalty may be allocated among the taxpayers with beneficial ownership making the voluntary disclosures in any way they choose. The reporting requirements for filing an FBAR, however, do not change. Therefor
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